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Spanking and Behavioral Problems

We often hear about the correlation between spanking and child behavioral problems. News sources cite studies that support this idea. Unfortunately, though, this information may be misleading. Several articles are often written from the same, small piece of research.

Having said that, there are several large studies that all say spanking causes behavioral problems.

A 1997 study by three psychiatrists surveyed 807 families over the course of two years to examine the effect of spanking on antisocial behavior specifically (such as fighting, stealing, bullying, or generally mistreating others). This longitudinal research found that the frequency of spanking had a strong positive correlation with antisocial behavior (ASB) two years later. Basically, the more often the kid was spanked, the more antisocial they were a few years down the road.

A 1998 study which also focused on ASB studied 933 mothers and children, and found that there was a strong correlation between corporal punishment and increased antisocial behavior. Corporal punishment was defined as a slapping on the rear or the back of the hand of the child in this study.

Conversely, some scholars believe this data is simply unreliable because they do not compare spanking with other punishment methods. A 2010 replication of a 1988 study which found a correlation between spanking and aggression found that, once adjusted for biases and confounding factors, the correlation was reduced to becoming statistically insignificant.

We can determine from this that although there is no solid proof that spanking will turn a kid into a heathen, the fact remains that larger studies either find a significant positive correlation between antisocial behavior and aggression or a slight (meaning statistically insignificant) correlation.

Protection from Domestic Violence

The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) was passed in 1994. This act and the provisions added in 1996 acknowledge domestic violence as a legitimate national crime and offers protection to victims under the federal government, in addition to state and local governments. In order for domestic violence to qualify as a federal crime, and thus be eligible for federal court or federal protection, it must meet certain standards.

Traditionally pop culture represents domestic abusers as an obsessively controlling husbands or boyfriends. Despite this common and prevailing depiction, abusers can take many forms. Plenty of abusers have been spouses, domestic partners, parents, ex-spouses, boyfriends, and girlfriends.

Being the victim of domestic abuse can be disorienting and frightening. It is important for people who become the victim of domestic violence to seek outside help in order to improve their situation. Legal help can be instrumental in enforcing restraining order and carrying out legal action against domestic aggressors.

In addition to providing immediate help for domestic violence, a family lawyer can help spouses who seek a divorce. Not only can lawyers mediate the legal proceedings surrounding separation but they can expedite the whole process. Most couples that seek a divorce typically have children. So when a divorce is necessary, the business of separating finances, estates, and family can be dicey.

In the majority of divorce cases, people need a legal assistance and expertise when determining child custody agreements, child visitation rights, and child support financial plans. The presence of an experienced attorney can help the process move along much faster as well as provide both parties with more options than they knew they had at their disposal.

Various Laws Enacted for the Protection of Employees

In order to protect and uphold the rights of employees and job applicants against abusive co-workers and employers, federal and state laws have been passed and enforced all across the United States. These laws are also intended to help create order and balance in the workplace and violation of any of the stipulations contained in them would lead to charges and possible compensation to do justice to the affected employee.

Various workplace discrimination laws are enforced by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of 1964. The EEOC is a self-governing body approved by the US Congress on July 2 of 1964; its creation was for the implementation of the Civil Rights Act, which was passed in 1964 and aimed at safeguarding individuals from the many forms of employment discrimination existing in the workplace. The usual bases of these discriminatory acts are race, origin, color, sex and religion.

The other laws that have been created and which are enforced by EEOC include:

  • The Equal Pay Act (EPA): this law, which was approved in 1963, orders that employees who perform the same work ( in the same office), regardless of gender, ought to receive the same pay; “same work” implies similar responsibilities, skills and efforts
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964: this law illegalizes any form of discrimination, regardless of basis; it also prohibits retaliatory acts against employees who simply complain or file employment discrimination cases and who participate in investigations or lawsuits involving discriminatory practices
  • The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA): beginning in 1967 those who applied for jobs and were aged 40 or above received protection from this law
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): this 1990 law provides protection to people who are discriminated due to their disability (despite their competence and capability to perform the work like anybody else)
  • Sections 102 and 103 of the Civil Rights Act of 1991: these laws are actually improvements of the Civil Rights Act and Americans with Disabilities Act. The law allows the granting of compensation to victims of intentional employment discrimination
  • The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA): its approval on November 21, 2009, gave protection to individuals with issues of genetic information. It also illegalizes leaking of information regarding an employee’s family’s medical condition,  genetic tests, as well as issues of medical disorders
  • The Pregnancy Discrimination Act: this law is one of the amendments made on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act; it makes discrimination against women due to pregnancy or childbirth (as well as any medical situation akin to pregnancy and childbirth) illegal.

There is a statute of limitation, though, for the filing of employment discrimination cases; these cases will also need to be forwarded to the EEOC first. Having a good lawyer to assist you will ensure that you go through the whole process correctly and within the specified time limit.

Get that ‘Salon-gorgeous Hair” that You’ve Always Wanted

The continuous growth of the professional beauty industry has driven industry and (hair) salon operators all across the US to give only their best efforts in providing services aligned with the growing and ever changing consumer needs. Thus, over the past few years, besides haircutting, which is the most basic service rendered by hair salons and which customers also see as the most necessary, many other services have been introduced and continuously improved to ensure customer approval and satisfaction.

Besides the traditional haircutting service, hair salons today also render trims, hair length reduction and layering – services that apply to all genders from any age groups. In addition, there are also the hair-coloring or tinting, keratin/smoothing, cutting and styling, blow-drying and shampooing services. Occasionally, some male customers ask for mustache and beard-trimming – services that are usually rendered by barbers. But due to the many other services needed by customers, hair salons have opted to include in their list of services, hair modification treatments, such as straightening and perms, facials and deluxe nail (fingers and toes) care services.

Among all the services rendered in hair salons, haircutting is still the most demanded, raking up the highest revenue year after year. And though hair salons specifically designed for male customers enjoyed an increase in profit, earnings prove to be higher in salons that offer services to both male and female. Profit, however, is evident not only in hair salon establishments. Sale of hair care products has also seen an increase due to many options these products provided customers with, and the convenience of not having to go to the salon for the needed service, besides its being less costly.

Hair salon treatments may sometimes prove to be quite expensive; but this so because of the real difference it will create in you each time you visit. Even hair-care products point to this fact as evidenced in their label where it says, “salon-gorgeous hair.” Thus, a hair stylist would only be too happy to provide you with the specific hair treatment that you need. Is it to protect your hair from further damage, nourish, enhance, repair or strengthen it? If you want your hair to return to its most beautiful and healthiest state, then leave its care to the experts.

Medical and Non-medical Negligent Acts the Lead to the Development of Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a brain disorder that may be caused by medical or non-medical negligent or reckless acts. This brain disorder is widespread in babies and children aged eight or below. The known major cause of cerebral palsy is medical error/malpractice. Misdiagnosis, surgical error, delayed diagnosis and anesthesia error are the most common forms of this malpractice.

Obviously, such errors are easily avoidable through proper care of the pregnant mother and her child during and right after her child’s birth. Thus, no doctor or medical personnel under whose care the pregnant mother and her newly born child are can ever make the excuse that the injury inflicted on the child was accidental.

The non-medical causes of cerebral palsy in children usually trigger a severe or prolonged loss of oxygen to the brain, resulting to the development of the disease. A child who is constantly abused, who may have had a near drowning experience, suffered a forceful blow to the head or who may have suffered a head injury due to a car accident are examples of the non-medical causes of cerebral palsy.

Asphyxia, that is, oxygen deprivation during birth which leads to brain damage is another cause of cerebral palsy. During the first six months after birth, though, the infant may suffer from any of the following medical conditions which can lead to the development of cerebral palsy:

  • Intracranial hemorrhage, this is brain hemorrhage suffered the baby; this is usually caused by stroke.
  • Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) are factors that may be the result of a pregnant mother’s abusive acts or subjection to health problems. Use of illegal drugs during pregnancy accounts for the abusive act; suffering from infections and/or extremely low blood pressure are counted under health problem issues.
  • Abnormal development of the brain may be caused by changes in the genes that affect the infant’s brain development, viruses, infections or , disturbance to the head while yet in the mother’s womb.

Cerebral palsy affects a child’s movement, balance, and body posture. This condition causes great concern and inconvenience to child and parent, as well as financial burden to the family for the required costly medical treatment needed by the child. This is one ailment that legally deserves and requires compensation from whoever might have committed the act of negligence or carelessness that resulted to its development.

The Necessity of Having a Lawyer in a Legal Case

Living in a sturdy house and being able to drive or walk on any US road totally safe from any harm all the rest of your life are what ought to be. But, better face it; this is not what reality is. The moment a person walks out of his door, he subjects himself/herself to all kinds of danger and injury; to some, their very own residence is even the possible source of danger.

A house collapsing on its residents, a motor vehicle accident, an animal bite or attack, being injured due to a fall, wrong diagnosis, workplace injury, medical error, injury caused by harmful chemicals, wrong medication, sub-standard vehicar parts and road defects – all these are just some of the civil liabilities a person may be faced with; and then, there are also criminal charges a person may be accused of.

In the event of any of those mentioned above, it would be an ideal move to seek legal assistance as each will need to be settled legally (sometimes settlement is made outside the court, saving both victim and liable party from the lengthy lawsuit). Now, the laws under which civil liabilities fall, which are tort laws, are long and complex. But besides the laws’ intricacies, another important reason why victims ought to have a lawyer is to have someone represent them and fight for their rights and interests.

Falling under the tort law, injured victims are entitled to receive compensation from the liable party/entity, which may be an individual, a firm or even a government agency. This is because the law holds that the accident, which has caused injury to the victim, is due to the liable party’s negligence, carelessness or recklessness.

The right to receive compensation is given even to victims of sea tragedies/effects of sea tragedies, such as the oil spill that occurred in April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. If you live along the shores of the states affected by the spill, then you definitely would have suffered due to the effects the spill has caused. Many valid claims are being rejected, so filing a BP claim appeal is with the assistance of determined and knowledgeable legal counsel who could fight for your right to compensation is necessary.

Another very informative online article posted in the website of Disparti Law Group talks about the right of veterans to disability compensation, due to the service-related injury they have sustained that now impairs them from being able to work.

Though a lawyer’s job is to defend clients, not all lawyers have equal capabilities, determination and courtroom skills. Some are definitely more knowledgeable, determined and experienced than others, making them the best people to take your case.

Defensive Medicine, Oftentimes the Real Cause of Patient’s Death

“I have complete faith in you.” These words, when uttered by a patient (or a patient’s family) to a doctor will definitely have considerable weight, especially if the patient’s real condition is 50% speculation. Despite any obscurity to diagnosis, a doctor should have ready answers to family members’ questions; probably even a straightforward and honest, I do not know what is causing all this, yet,” if necessary.

Many doctors would have surely had such experience – of being fully trusted and seeing, in the end, how the faith has actually worked, even without fully understanding the patient’s sudden leap to recovery. Maybe a lot of doctors would compliment themselves, thinking that they have done the right procedures and have given just the right medication.

Those who would venture deeper into faith may most probably be led to recall a line or two of the new Hippocratic Oath, which says:

“I will apply, for the benefit of the sick, all measures that are required, avoiding those twin traps of overtreatment and therapeutic nihilism. I will remember that there is art to medicine as well as science, and that warmth, sympathy, and understanding may outweigh the surgeon’s knife or the chemist’s drug.”

It is a sad fact, though, how majority of today’s doctors in the US are vehemently refrained from making medical decisions based on faith or instinct (developed through diagnosis of hundreds of like cases). Defensive medicine may have a lot to do with this – a situation wherein doctors in emergency departments, hospital wards, operating rooms and offices are told to dismiss basing diagnosis on possibilities of suffer legal consequences. Thus, in fear of being sued and accused of not following procedures despite being quite certain of what a patient’s real problem might be, doctors decide to rather subject patients to take medications or undergo medical procedures – both to the patient’s loss.

Prescribing medicine is one instance that can be related to defensive medicine, such as in the case of Depakote, a prescription drug intended for patients with bipolar disorder in treatment of their seizures and episodes of mania. Depakote side effects, however, have proven to be more harmful as the drug has been linked to chronic and permanent health problems, as well as the cause of facial deformities in children whose mothers have taken the medicine during pregnancy.

In some instances, recommending that a patient undergo a da Vinci-assisted surgery (da Vinci is a multi-armed robot designed to perform minimally invasive surgeries) to effectively treat his/her health complaint has resulted to serious injuries due to the unchecked da Vinci robot dangers.

There are many other medical instances wherein a patient’s situation and well-being are compromised due to defensive medicine. This fear of being sued is largely due to the tort system which can easily put a doctor in hot waters, being accused of not having done enough, if they let instinct affect their decision, or of doing more than what was necessary if they follow procedures to the letter.